International-Lawyers.Org welcomed the report of the Human Rights Council’s Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food that documented the disproportionate impact that climate change has on the right to food of women and their families. INTLawyers informed the Special Rapporteur of the failure of COP21 to meet the expectations and needs of women effected by climate change, drawing attention to our video that captures the highlights of the critical intervention of the the women’s major group that condemned the Paris Agreement for its failure to adequately address the needs of women. Please view:http://vimeo.com/151222669. INTLawyers also asked the Special Rapporteur for recommendations on what could be done to redress this situation within the structures under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change? We eagerly await the Special Rapporteur’s response. INTLawyers is committed to protecting the most vulnerable groups that are exposed to the adverse effects of climate change using the rule of international law.
For many developing countries and NGOs, the departure of UNFCCC executive secratary Ms Karen Christiana Figueres Olsen’s departure will not be sad news. While her openness to civil society received well-deserved praise. Her apparent substantive bias towards polluters was disappointing. There is hope that her successor will be more even-handed, but there are also problems with many of those who have been suggested from the civil society point of view. Some comments on these choices from a civil society perspective follow.
#1 – Patricia Espinosa (Mexico): In Cancun Ms Espinosa representing the hosts and COP President helped push through a series of Cancun decisions that put in the mess we are in today. Like Mr.Fabius she used dishonest techniques to exclude nations that did not agree with the lowest common denominator. For example, two developing country representatives were sent to the wrong room for a meeting to get them out of the way on tough decisions. Similarly Observers or civil society were relegated to a polo grounds far away from the main meeting. A record of seemingly dishonest action does not bode well for the new head of UN agency already accused of dishonest bias.
#2 – Fatih Birol (Turkey): On the face of things, any Turk is likely to suffer from the same disability that Prince Ali suffered from in the FIFA election: the country is currently a human rights pariah that seems to violate some of the most fundamental international laws–such as article 2(4)of the Charter of the United Nations prohibiting the use of force by its bombing of Syria. Moreover the International Energy Agency and lame duck Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon’s UN’s Sustainable Energy 4 All Panel have not been models of civil society involvement. They are both sustained by rich States, whose opinions they tend to support, while making only illusionary efforts to appear as if civil society is being consulted. In reality civil society’s voice is generally ignored in both bodies, unless you happen to be a rich corporation that can pay to be heard. This i not someone civil society is likely to favour for leading the UNFCCC Secretariat.
#3 – Manuel Pulgar Vidal (Peru): Initially he reached out to civil society even sending an envoy to consult with civil society at the Pre-COP in Venezuela in 2014 and himself attending the parallel pre-COP State meeting. As the discussion got under away civil society became more and more irrelevant. He also did his best to side-line advocates of social interest such a health making sure his health minister, who had been a champion of ensuring attention for the health impacts of climate change at COP20 in Lima, was not in Paris to raise the issue that was uncomfortable for developed countries. Most damaging, however, was his role at COP21 where COP21 French President Fabius named him his envoy to civil society and then systematically excluded civil society or Observers from participation in any level of the decision making process. The exclusion of civil society was one of the leading reasons the Paris Agreement is so weak. If Pulgar Vidal was willing to be used to keep civil society out of COP21, one can only imagine how hostile he will be to civil society running the UNFCCC Secretariat.
#4 – Pa Ousman Jarju (Gambia): A shrewd negotiator and committed to adequate climate action as he illustrated in practice as LDC coordinator and spokesperson in the past. As noted he comes from a country on the frontline and sees some of the harshest impacts of the adverse effects of climate change on a daily basis. Nevertheless, in Paris he was seen at best as ineffective in confronting the French and at worse as having been bought off by the dubious honor of being asked to become a confident of the less than honest Fabius at COP21. Even more than Turkey, Gambia is a country ruled by an iron-fisted president who comes down harsh on those who dissent. It is hard to see Pa Ousman being able to operate free from the heavy hand of the civil-society-unfriendly policies of his president. To date Pa Ousman has not shown much appreciation for civil society. His engagement with civil society in drafting the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights’ report on human rights and climate change in Africa as the host country of this African Union body and despite the Ethiopian commissioner’s apparent attempts to suppress this work, might be a telling indication of where he stands on civil society participation in climate change decision making.
#5 – Nozipho Joyce Mxakato-Diseko (South Africa): During the past year Ms Mxakato-Diseko showed herself to be a capable negotiator and spokeswoman for G77 interests, however, when push came to shove, she was pushed out of the way just like her government and her Minister Edna were at COP17, which was hosted in Durban, South Africa. It is hard to see her being a strong leader of the UNFCCC. She has shown a willingness to treat civil society fairly and to afford them access, but not to fight for these values when other object. Despite her shortcomings she is likely the most civil society friendly candidate among these ten.
#6 – Dessima Williams (Grenada): She is an articulate defender of strong climate action. At least that is how she seemed until she was apparently bought out by Obama’s charm and dropped her support of the strong G77 position at COP15 in favour of backing the discredited Copenhagen Accords to which the overwhelming majority of civil society objected. If she leads the UNFCCC Secretariat civil society climate justice advocates will constantly have to watch their backs as Williams could turn on them without warning. Thus while her strong advocacy has sometimes won her kudos from civil society, her unreliability makes her a big risk for civil society to support.
#7 – André Corrêa do Lago (Brazil): NGOs will undoubtedly remember Mr. Corrêa do Lago bets for his unsuccessful effort to exclude civil society from the negotiating room at Rio+20 in 2012. he claimed NGOs did not fit into room that were half empty for the early morning meetings and then tried to impose without any reason limits on civil society participation pushed by a handful of Western European and Others Group (WEOG) States. His embarrassingly inept efforts backfired terribly, forcing him to stand down. This does not bode well for a future UNFCCC leader. And his actions at Rio+20 will likely create a disability for any Brazilian (see “#10 – Izabella Teixeira” below). Having said this, Mr. Corrêa do Lago showed him to be a strong and effective champion of principles like ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’ and the financial commitments of developed States to developing States. His strategic vision and his ability to balance competing interests to achieve something better than the lowest common denominator recommend him well, but again he is likely someone whom civil society cannot really trust based on his track record.
#8 – Teresa Ribera (Spain): To even see Ms Ribera’s name on the list is somewhat of a surprise. While she is somewhat open to civil society her motives as as sinister as those of the CIA of MI5. The French IDDRI was the intellectual backbone of Fabius manipulation of COP21. It also seemed part and parcel of the strategy he deployed of repeatedly claiming the COP was open and exclusive, while at the same time making sure it was closed and non-participatory and brokering highly questionable decisions behind closed doors. It was rumored that Ms Ribera had something to do with the infamous paragraph 52 in the COP21 Decision 1, that sells out the rights of future generations for virtually nothing in return (the deal was actually done between the USA and Tuvalu).
#9 – Laurence Tubiana (France): She was the right-hand woman to Fabius as he conspired with a few western allies to eliminate civil society from COP21. While there is no evidence that she was involved in this decision, which seemed to be collusion between the UNFCCC Secretariat and the COP21 President Fabius, she was sitting right there in the middle of it and did nothing apparent to object.
#10 – Izabella Teixeira (Brazil): Known as strong and wise minister of environment, when informed at COP21 of the French COP21 President’s eventually successful efforts to change a substantive provision of the treaty claiming it was a technical change, merely shrugged as if she had no idea what she was being told. As it transpired she sat watching the fiasco without even raising a finger to support some of her more courageous developing country partners. Was she part of the dishonest deal between Fabius and Kerry or merely an ignorant bystander? Neither role bodes well for a country that is a key actor in the G77. She has not been warm towards NGOs and Brazil’s hand had to be forced to get NGOs into the room in the late night sessions at Rio+20 in 2012 where the Brazilians first banned civil society, before relenting to civil society pressure to let them into the room.
It is hoped that a women would be favored as women are still underrepresented in the UN Secretariat and the UNFCCC chief is also a senior UN Secretariat official.
Most importantly, however, is that a new UNFCCC chief has the courage to push for strong climate action that reflects the aspirations of climate justice that both civil society and the majority of developing States want to see realized.
Maybe it time that a civil society actor is chosen. It will have to be one that understands that the UNFCCC processes are State-centric, but also one who understands the important role that civil society can play merely by being in the room, observing, and letting the people of the world know what their representatives are up to when they discuss one of the most serious problems facing humanity today.